Exfoliation, Scrub and Gommage

Sep 1, 2011 | Contact Author | By: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories
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Title: Exfoliation, Scrub and Gommage
exfoliationx gommagex scrubx cell detachmentx rejuvenationx
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Keywords: exfoliation | gommage | scrub | cell detachment | rejuvenation

Abstract: Cosmetic means for achieving rejuvenated skin can be positioned according to intensity of action, skin renewal speed and some functioning details, thus: gommage, scrub, exfoliation and peel represent the four rejuvenation strategies. In some regions, peel refers to aggressive treatments requiring authorized operators such as dermatologists or medical doctors. Therefore, this column will discuss only the first three methods for a better skin glow.

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L Rigano, Exfoliation, Scrub and Gommage, Cosm & Toil 128(9) 630 (2013)

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Skin rejuvenation can be achieved by reducing a fatigued look; i.e., smoothing wrinkles, lightening dark spots, shedding persistently attached dead cells and removing oxidized sebum. Once superficial skin layers are eliminated, the skin beneath begins to produce shielding stratum corneum cells, and “fresh” cells come to the skin’s surface, glowing and untouched. This skin purification achieves its goal of renewal, resulting in a visible difference. The process also has the benefit of increasing capillary circulation, which supplies additional nutrients to the skin.

Cosmetic means for achieving rejuvenated skin can be positioned according to intensity of action, skin renewal speed and some functioning details, thus: gommage, scrub, exfoliation and peel represent the four rejuvenation strategies. In some regions, peel refers to aggressive treatments requiring authorized operators such as dermatologists or medical doctors. Therefore, this column will discuss only the first three methods for a better skin glow.

Aiding Cell Detachment

Skin cell detachment takes place physiologically every hour of the day, at the pace of millions of cells per day;1 nevertheless, this process can be aided by cosmetic means. Such intervention is frequently made necessary by the residual adhesion forces that glue dead cells to one another, mediated by intercellular cement residues. This happens mainly when skin cell renewal slows and the progressive aging of skin metabolism does not provide enough driving force for cell detachment. In other cases, uneven pigmentation following exposure to environmental agents such as sun and wind is the cause of the long-term residence of worn superficial cells. Dry skin conditions, progressive wrinkling artificial tanning and the slowing of capillary microcirculation frequently are aggravating elements as well.

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Footnotes (CT1309 Rigano)

a Carbopol Ultrez 30 (INCI: Carbomer) is manufactured by Lubrizol, www.lubrizol.com.
b Delisens (INCI: Acetyl Hexapeptide 49) is manufactured by Lipotec, www.lipotec.com.
c Exfoliating Volcanic Sand from Tahiti (INCI: Silica) is manufactured by Pacifique Sud Ingredients, www.pacifiquesud.com.
d Perfection Peptide 3 (INCI: Hexanoyl Dipeptide-3 Norleucine Acetate (and) Lecithin (and) Glycerin (and) Phenoxyethanol (and) Water (aqua)) is manufactured by Mibelle Biochemistry, www.mibellebiochemistry.com.
e Keratoline (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Glycerin (and) Propylene Gycol (and) Bacillus Ferment) is manufactured by Sederma, www.sederma.fr.
f Actizyme E3M-M (INCI: Mucor Miehei Extract (and) Butylene Glycol (and) Water (aqua)) is manufactured by Active Organics, www.activeorganics.com.
g Peelmoist (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Glycerin (and) Papain (and) Calcium Pantothenate (and) Xanthan Gum (and) Caprylyl Glycol (and) Urea (and) Magnesium Lactate (and) Ethylhexylglycerin (and) Potassium Lactate (and) Serine (and) Alanine (and) Proline (and) Magnesium Chloride (and) Sodium Citrate) is manufactured by Lipotec, www.lipotec.com.
h Rice Exfoliator Vision Beads (INCI: Cellulose (and) Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (and) Vitamin E) and Bamboo Exfoliator Vision Beads (INCI: Cellulose (and) Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (and) Vitamin E) are manufactured by Impact Colors, www.impactcolors.com.
j Gotalene RS400 (INCI: Polylactic Acid (and) Lactide (and) Lactic Acid) is a product manufactured by DuPont, www.dupont.com.
k Asensa NSC (INCI: Polylactic Acid) is manufactured by Honeywell, www.honeywell.com/asensa.
m Matrixyl 3000 (INCI: Glycerin (and) Butylene Glycol (and) Water (aqua) (and) Carbomer (and) Polysorbate-20 (and) Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (and) Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7) is manufactured by Sederma, www.sederma.fr.

Formula 1. Standard Gommage Formulation

Formula 1. Standard Gommage Formulation

Here, starch provides the gommage effect, xanthan gum helps to keep it in suspension and to obtains flocs, and trimethylglycine (betaine) is a swelling aid for the xanthan gum and a water mobilizer.

Formula 2. Facial scrub

Formula 2. Facial scrub

In Formula 2, the scrubbing particles are made of polyethylene.2 The vehicle is an emulsion using triethanolamine (TEA) stearate together with ethoxylated cetyl alcohol as additional emulsifiers and cleansing agents.

Formula 3. Exfoliant skin cleanser

Formula 3. Exfoliant skin cleanser

Formula 3 resembles a common shower gel in its blend of surfactants, except for the lack of a foam booster.3

Formula 4. Foaming sugar scrub4

Formula 4. Foaming sugar scrub<sup>4</sup>

The principle of Formula 4 is to provide gentle scrubbing with sugar crystals.4

Formula 5. Sugar and salt body scrub (Evonik)5

Formula 5. Sugar and salt body scrub (Evonik)<sup>5</sup>

Formula 5 is an example of a vegetal oil formula with salt crystals as scrubs.5

Formula 6. Exfoliation lotion (modified)7

Formula 6. Exfoliation lotion (modified)<sup>7</sup>

In Formula 6, some contradiction is evident.7

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