Alternative Ingredients for Sustainable Shampoo Development

Aug 1, 2011 | Contact Author | By: Denis Bendejacq, PhD; Caroline Mabille, PhD; Monique Adamy; and Jean-François Viot, PhD; and Irene Wong, PhD, Rhodia
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Title: Alternative Ingredients for Sustainable Shampoo Development
sustainabilityx cleansingx hair conditioningx petrochemicalx plantx ethylene oxide-freex sulfate-freex sodium laureth sulfatex cocamidopropyl betainex
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Keywords: sustainability | cleansing | hair conditioning | petrochemical | plant | ethylene oxide-free | sulfate-free | sodium laureth sulfate | cocamidopropyl betaine

Abstract: In this article, several ingredients are reviewed for development of sustainable shampoo formulations. Some of the functional ingredients reviewed are plant-based alternatives to existing, petro sourced ingredients while others are mild, sulfate-free and/ or ethoxylate-free alternatives to existing surfactant systems, thickening solutions for challenging media based on naturally derived polymers and efficacy boosters that reduce the use of non-renewable actives with equal benefit for the consumer.

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D Bendejacq, C Mabille, M Adamy and J-F Viot, Alternative Ingredients for Sustainable Shampoo Development, Cosm & Toil 126(8) 564 (2011)

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Sustainability should not be defined by its separate factors such as renewable resources, carbon emissions, toxicity to the environment or human health, but it should be considered as the whole. More than a collection of technical challenges, it is a responsible approach that global companies are trying to define and implement in multiple and complementary areas such as corporate social responsibility, manufacturing, product profiling and sourcing.

In personal care, ingredients such as synthetic polymers, silicones, ethoxylated surfactants and preservatives are commonly used, proposing a challenge for raw material manufacturers to create ingredients that are sustainable with equal performance.

The aspect of sustainability that perhaps is most perceivable for the consumer is the emergence of resourceoriented raw materials with a better green profile such as those of vegetable origin rather than animal or petrochemical origin. Although designing such raw materials with a more sustainable profile will be successful in a limited number of cases, a new origin for petrochemical- or animal-derived ingredients (non-renewable origins) is of value, specifically when the ingredient widely is used around the globe. Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) is an example of a widely used ingredient in the personal care industry. Its frequent use justifies the review and redesign of its production process and petrochemical origin (non-renewable).

Some manufacturers of sustainable personal care products utilize the claim ethylene oxide (EO)-free, which often is associated with sulfate-free products. This claim is challenging for formulators, as it involves the total replacement of EO-based surfactants like SLES. The substitutes must maintain the formulation ease of using SLES (body wash, shampoo) while providing the level of performance expected by the consumer (foam, cleansing, mildness, conditioning). Recent surfactant structures and additives have been created that are free of EO and/or of natural origin, can offer pleasant cleansing, and perform according to the consumer’s needs. When certain raw materials cannot be easily replaced due to their unique properties (i.e., silicones for their silky feel), finding ingredients that make formulations more efficient remains one of the main challenges for formulators.

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Table 1. Sustainability of raw material alternatives

Table 1. Sustainability of raw material alternatives

Shampoos were made with combinations of the ingredients from Table 1 to illustrate the design of more sustainable cleansing products.

Table 2. Sustainable formulations

Table 2. Sustainable formulations

Table 2 provides six examples of sustainable formulations, each formulated to fulfil a different need.

Figure 1. Petro- (orange) vs. bio-derived (green) SLES in combination with cocamidopropyl betaine (squares) or sodium cocoamphoacetate (circles)

Figure 1. Petro- (orange) vs. bio-derived (green) SLES in combination with cocamidopropyl betaine (squares) or sodium cocoamphoacetate (circles)

Figure 1 illustrates how a vegetable-based SLES grade compares to its petro-derived equivalent.

Figure 2. The petro (left) and bio routes (right) leading to the production and destruction of SLES

Figure 2. The petro (left) and bio routes (right) leading to the production and destruction of SLES

The classical petrochemical route used to synthesize conventional SLES, as shown in Figure 2, is based on naphta steam cracking, which dilutes a hydrocarbon feed (such as naphta or ethane) in gas or liquid forms with steam and heats the mixture in a furnace without the presence of oxygen.

Figure 3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) footprint and consumption of non-renewable resources for petro- and bio-sourced SLES

Figure 3. Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) footprint and consumption of non-renewable resources for petro- and bio-sourced SLES

Plant- and petro-based SLES (based on 100% active) were compared for their carbon dioxide footprint and the consumption of non-renewable resources, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4. Varying ratios of xanthan gum/hydroxypropyl guar gum in a disodium laureth sulfosuccinate/cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine system with their associated formulations pictured

Figure 4. Varying ratios of xanthan gum/hydroxypropyl guar gum in a disodium laureth sulfosuccinate/cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine system with their associated formulations pictured

Figure 4 shows how different ratios of xanthan gum vs. hydroxypropyl guar at a total solid concentration of 1.0% w/w change the properties of a surfactant system made of 9.2% w/w disodium laureth sulfosuccinate and 1.8% w/w cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine as milder replacements for an SLES/CAPB combination.

Figure 5. pH adjustment on a sulfate-free surfactant system

Figure 5. pH adjustment on a sulfate-free surfactant system

Figure 5 shows that it is possible to build viscosity in a formulation based on a blend of sultate-free surfactants by adjusting the pH.

Footnotes (CT1109 Bendejacq)

a Rhodapex ESB-70 Nat (70% w/w active) (INCI: Sodium Laureth Sulfate) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
b Rhodapex ESB-70 (70% w/w active) (INCI: Sodium Laureth Sulfate) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
c Mackadet SFC-1 (40% w/w solids) (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate (and) Sodium Lauroamphohydroxypropylsulfonate (and) Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine (and) Cocamide MIPA (and) Cocamidopropyl Betaine (and) Decyl Glucoside) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
d Mackam CBS 50G (INCI: Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
e Miranol Ultra L32 or C32 (INCI: Sodium Coco- or Lauro-amphoacetates) are products of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
f Mirataine BET C-30 (30% w/w active) (INCI: Cocamidopropyl Betaine) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
g Jaguar S (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Guar Gum) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
h Jaguar HP105 (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Hydroxypropyl Guar) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
i Rhodicare T (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Xanthan Gum) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
j Jaguar C162 (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Hydroxypropyl Guar Hydroxypropytrimonium Chloride) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
k DV-II viscosimeter is a device manufactured by Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Inc., Middleboro, Mass., USA.
m Miniature Tensile Tester is a device manufactured by Diastron Ltd., Broomall, Penn., USA.
n Figure was calculated based on a number of searches on the Global New Product Database, a resource of Mintel, London.
p Jaguar Excel (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
q Jaguar C13S (100% w/w solids) INCI: Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride) are products of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
r Jaguar C17 (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride) are products of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
s UCare JR-400 (100% w/w solids) (INCI: Polyquaternium-10) is a product of The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., USA.
t Mirapol 550 (9% w/w solids) (INCI: Polyquaternium-7) is a product of Rhodia Inc., Paris.
u Plantacare 818 (50% w/w active) (INCI: Coco-glucoside) is a product of Cognis Inc., now part of BASF AG., Ludwigshafen, Germany.

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