Layered Color-travel Pigments for a V-shaped Facial Appearance

Jan 13, 2014 | Contact Author | By: Malyn Chulasiri, PhD, Better Way (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and S&J International Enterprises PCL, Bangkok; and Pawinee Santiparaphop and Veerawat Teeranachaideekul, PhD, S&J International Enterprises PCL, Bangkok
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Title: Layered Color-travel Pigments for a V-shaped Facial Appearance
V-shaped facex slimming effectsx facial powderx layered color-travel pigmentsx
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Keywords: V-shaped face | slimming effects | facial powder | layered color-travel pigments

Abstract: The present article discusses facial powder containing specific layered color-travel pigments that give a color-flop effect due to light reflectance at different angles. In particular, layering a bluish silver pigment with a sienna pigment is shown to highlight the forehead, cheek and nasal bridge while shading the jaw, chin and alar base of the nose, consequently imparting a slim-looking appearance.

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M Chulasiri, P Santiparaphop and V Teeranachaideekul, Layered color-travel pigments for a v-shaped facial appearance, Cosm & Toil 128(12) 868-873 (Dec 2013)

Market Data

  • The color cosmetic category a mere 13% increase from 2008–13.
  • There was a 50% increase in BB cream product launches over 2012.
  • 29% of women report wearing BB cream, compared to 68% who wear foundation, 69% for blusher, 64% for powder, 61% for concealer, 39% for primer and 39% for bronzer.
  • BB Cream use in the U.S. was up 5% in 2012, from 24 to 29%.
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For many women, the most favorable facial profile is V-shaped or a slim oval; narrowing from the cheeks down to the chin to resemble a “V.” This shape is interpreted to be more attractive, feminine and younger. Aesthetic and invasive treatments to achieve this look have become increasingly popular. There are also non-surgical options to achieve this effect such as the use of onabotulinumtoxinA, face rollers, heat masks and other topical skin care products for slimming and firming the face. These non-surgical treatments gradually change the face, resulting in a thinner look. Another option, explored here, is to provide a slimmer appearance without physical change—i.e., the use of makeup to create the illusion of a thinner, V-line face. Described here is a facial powder formulated with layered color-travel pigments to provide such an effect, and evaluations to determine its efficacy.

Optical Effects

Studies have shown that color-travel pigments provide angle-dependent optical effects that can be beneficial for cosmetics, such as to contour the face. For the present study, a facial powder was formulated with layered color-travel pigments composed of mica coated with titanium dioxide, iron oxides and silica. These multi-layered pigments reflect light at specular and diffusion angles to impart a color-flop effect of brightness and darkness, respectively. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the pigments with these light reflection effects.

In relation, facial powder is one of the most fundamental and commonly used makeup products. It is easy to use and its effects to improve appearance are instant, immediately covering one’s complexion and imperfections, absorbing grease and oil, and giving a smooth, matte finish to the face. Facial powder was therefore chosen as the best vehicle to employ the described color-travel pigments. Following are assessments of the pigments themselves and the facial powder containing them, to determine their ability to highlight and shade some facial areas, and impart a more V-shaped look.

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Table 1. Particle size of the color-travel vs. white pearlescent pigments

Table 1. Particle size of the color-travel vs. white pearlescent pigments

The mean particle size of the white pearlescent pigments (10.98 μm) was smaller than the color-travel pigments (15.53 μm), with SPAN values of 1.41 and 1.73, respectively.

Table 2. Average values of L*, a* and b*

Table 2. Average values of L*, a* and b* measured from thin film pigments and viewed at three different positions

The thin films made from white pearlescent and color-travel pigments on the plastic sheet were analyzed for angle-dependent optical effects.

Table 3. delta-E* values between different viewing positions

Table 3. delta-E* values between different viewing positions

From this table, such values exhibited by the color-travel pigments were higher (13.72 and 14.17) between the middle front and side viewing positions (P2-P1 and P2-P3) than the white pearlescent pigments (3.55 and 2.97).

Table 4. Expert analysis

Table 4. Expert analysis

Analysis by experts of V-shaped cosmetic effects for the 20 volunteers

Figure 1. Scenario structure of color-travel pigments

Figure 1. Scenario structure of color-travel pigments

Multi-layered pigments reflect light at specular and diffusion angles to impart a color-flop effect of brightness and darkness, respectively.

Figure 2. Positioning of thin film pigments on plastic facial masks

Figure 2. Positioning of thin film pigments on plastic facial masks

Positioning of thin film pigments on plastic facial masks for color imaging analysis; P1= right view, P2 = middle front view and P3 = left view

Figure 3. Particle size and size distribution of pigments

Figure 3. Particle size and size distribution of white pearlescent pigments (green curve) and color-travel pigments (red curve)

The mean particle size of the white pearlescent pigments (10.98 μm, green curve) was smaller than the color-travel pigments (15.53 μm, red curve), with SPAN values of 1.41 and 1.73, respectively.

Figure 4. SEM images of pigments

Figure 4. SEM images of pigments

SEM images of white pearlescent pigments (top) and color-travel pigments (bottom) under 1,000 X (left) and 18,000 X (right) magnification

Figure 5. Facial images of volunteers

Figure 5. Facial images of volunteers

Facial images of volunteers before (left) and after applying facial powders containing white pearlescent pigments (center) and color-travel pigments (right) under controlled light and fixed distance conditions

Figure 6. Percentage satisfied survey participants

Figure 6. Percentage satisfied survey participants

Figure 6. Percentage of survey participants satisfied after applying the facial powder containing color-travel pigments (n = 120)

Footnotes [Chulasiri 128(12)]

a Botox is a registered trademark of Allergan, www.allergan.com.

b Timiron Supersheen MP-1001 pigments (INCI: Mica (and) Titanium Dioxide) are products of Merck KGAA, www.emdgroup.com/emd/index.html.

c Color Beige-2 Pigments (INCI: Mica (and) Titanium Dioxide (and) Iron Oxides (and) Silica) are products of JGC Catalysts and Chemicals Ltd., www.jgccc.com.

d The Mastersizer 2000 is manufactured by Malvern Instruments, www.malvern.com.

e The Olympus CX31 SEM is manufactured by Olympus, www.olympusamerica.com.

f The DigiEye is manufactured by VeriVide, www.verivide.com.

Formula 1. Tested facial powder

Talc (and) Dimethicone (jet milled) 29.43% w/w
Mica (and) Dimethicone 35.00
Titanium Dioxide (and) Triethoxycaprylylsilane 8.40
Polymethyl Methacrylate 5.50
Silica 4.00
Zinc Oxide 3.00
Zinc Stearate 1.50
Lauroyl Lysine 0.80
Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate 0.50
Iron Oxides (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499) 1.55
Dimethicone 2.45
Squalane 1.55
Copernicia Cerifera (Carnauba) Wax 0.10
Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate 3.00
Caprylyl Glycol 0.80
Ubiquinone (and) Tocopheryl Acetate (and) Squalane 0.20
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract (and) Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride 0.10
Fragrance (parfum) 0.10
Tocopherol 0.02
Mica (and) Titanium Dioxide (and) Iron Oxides (CI77491) (and) Silica (color-travel pigments) or Mica (and) Titanium Dioxide (white pearlescent pigments) 2.00
  100.00

 

   

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