Color Foundation and Base Formulas Deciphered

Mar 1, 2012 | Contact Author | By: Luigi Rigano, Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories
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Title: Color Foundation and Base Formulas Deciphered
foundationsx color cosmeticsx basesx pigmentsx
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Keywords: foundations | color cosmetics | bases | pigments

Abstract: The category of color cosmetics referred to as foundations, also known as bases, strives to achieve a complex mix of functional, sensorial and aesthetic effects. These all-over facial cosmetics aim to hide minor skin imperfections like wrinkles and blemishes; to even and modify the skin color of the face; and to alter the light reflection capability and luminosity of the face and neck—all while maintaining a natural-looking and velvety appearance.

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The category of color cosmetics referred to as foundations, also known as bases, strives to achieve a complex mix of functional, sensorial and aesthetic effects. These all-over facial cosmetics aim to hide minor skin imperfections like wrinkles and blemishes; to even and modify the skin color of the face; and to alter the light reflection capability and luminosity of the face and neck—all while maintaining a natural-looking and velvety appearance.

During application, a foundation must spread easily and accurately shade the face contour, especially when the adopted color is different from the natural skin tone. The consumer typically expects a foundation to last throughout the day or event, i.e., 5–16 hr; it should leave a thin, colored film that is stretchable and adaptable to deformations of the skin, for instance, to hide uneven textured, aged skin. In addition, it should be resistant to sweat and sebum, resilient to mechanical abrasion and comfortable to wear. The foundation’s color should perform well under different lighting conditions such as sunlight or artificial light and once dry, the film should withstand a sudden rain or unexpected tears; at the end of the day, however, the makeup should be as easily removed as it was applied. The safety of the foundation also must be guaranteed, especially considering the potential catalytic effect of iron oxide pigments. These can accelerate the reaction between environmental oxygen and sebum squalene, resulting in squalene peroxide, a strong irritant.1

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This is an excerpt of an article from GCI Magazine. The full version can be found here.

 

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Biography: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories

Luigi Rigano, PhD, is a consultant for the cosmetics industry, co-director of the Institute of Skin and Product Evaluation (ISPE), and head of Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories, a laboratory he founded in 1986. He spent more than 15 years in R&D, production and technical positions at Unilever, Intercos, Givaudan and Schering-Plough Corp., and is an active member of the International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) and of the register of chemists in the Lombardia region of Italy. Rigano serves as a consultant at the Milan Court and has authored more than 80 scientific articles on cosmetics, aesthetics and dermatology.

a-n

a Velvesil DM (INCI: Dimethicone (and) Cetearyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer) is a product of Momentive, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

b BPD-500 (INCI: HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer (and) Silica) is a product of Kobo, South Plainfield, N.J., USA.

c Sepisoft SP (INCI: Polymetyl Methacrylate (and) Sodium Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer (and) Isohexadecane) is a product of Seppic, Paris.

d Ganzpearl GM-0600 (INCI: Polymethyl Methacrylate) is a product of Presperse, Somerset, N.J., USA.

e Inutec SP1 (INCI: Inulin Lauryl Carbamate) is a product of Beneo-Bio-based Chemicals, Leuven, Belgium.

f Veegum (INCI: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate) is a series manufactured by R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Ltd., Norwalk, Conn., USA.

g Avicel (INCI: Varies) is a line of microcrystalline cellulose raw materials and blends manufactured by FMC BioPolymer, Philadelphia, USA.

h Bentone Gel PTIS V (INCI: Pentaerythrityl Tetraisostearate (and) Disteardimonium Hectorite (and) Propylene Carbonate) is a product of Elementis Specialties Inc., Hightstown, N.J., USA.

j Nikkol Dextrin Palmitate (INCI: Dextrin Palmitate) is a product of Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd., Tokyo.

k Nomcort HK-G (INCI: Glyceryl Behenate/Eicosadioate) is a product of Nisshin OilliO Group Ltd., Tokyo.

m Baycusan C1004 (INCI: Polyurethane-35) is a product of Bayer MaterialScience AG, Leverkusen, Germany.

n KS0790 (INCI: Sodium PEG-4 PEI-6 Phosphonate) is a product of Biochim S.r.l., Milan, Italy.

Formula 1. Basic foundation formulation

Formula 1. Basic foundation formulation

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00%
 Hydrotropes  2–5
 Pigments  8–12
 Fillers and optical interference solids  2–15
 Oils and fats  10–30
 Emulsifiers  3–8
 Thickeners and rheology agents  1–4
 Film-formers  1–3
 Sequestering agents  0.1–0.2
 Antioxidant system  0.1–0.2
 Fragrance (parfum)  0.1–0.4
 Antibacterial agents  0.1–1.0

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