Cheek to Cheek: Deciphering Stains and Blushes

Jan 23, 2014 | Contact Author | By: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories
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Title: Cheek to Cheek: Deciphering Stains and Blushes
colorx healthx stainx blushx pigmentsx wear-resistancex permanencex
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Keywords: color | health | stain | blush | pigments | wear-resistance | permanence

Abstract: Cheek stains and blushes are intended for a lightly shaded color that is well-blended. Such formulations must provide a transparent hue as well as exhibit wear-resistance. Here, these requirements are described, as are formula approaches and commercial examples. In relation, recent research has mostly aimed at increasing the permanence of pigments on skin; such new ingredients are discussed.

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L Rigano, Cheek to Cheek: Deciphering Stains and Blushes, Cosm & Toil 129(1-2) 54 (2014)

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Human evolution has favored alliances with healthy rather than unhealthy individuals, which is a trait shared with many other animal species.1 This state of health is often communicated visually; for example, the bright feathers of healthy male birds advertise to potential mates said male’s capability to invest precious energy in producing these details of beauty. In addition to communicating general health, studies2 concerning the faces of Caucasian females have shown that shape, symmetry and texture also are cues of attractiveness. In relation, color is perhaps one of the most important and variable characteristics of the face. Glowing pink, golden tones and silken luminosity transmit messages of health, youth and attractiveness.3 Rosy coloring on the cheeks, for example, can indicate the skin is adequately flushed with blood and oxygen, suggesting a strong heart and lungs. As time passes, these colors tend to equalize.

One potential connection between health and color could be made from golden and orange tones to the carotenoid pigments found in fruits and vegetables. The brain may instinctively perceive individuals wearing these colors as having strong immunity to recover from illness, are well-nourished and full of antioxidant defenses to protect against free radicals. Such connections might explain why many women are drawn to using color to modify their face, cheeks and lips.4 This article considers color formulations, including stains and blushes designed for the very specific cheek area.

Formula Functions and Requirements

Cheek stains and blushes are intended for a lightly shaded color that does not hide the underlying skin tone. In fact, the natural cheek color should blend with that of the applied stain to provide a transparent hue, giving skin a natural, fresh and glowing look. One additional function and important reason for applying this category of products is to modify light and shadows on the center of the face; i.e., enhancing some parts and hiding light imperfections.

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Suppliers Referenced (CT1401 Rigano)

a Baycusan is a line of products from Bayer Cosmetics, www.bayercosmetics.com.
b Belsil TMS 803 (INCI: Trimethylsiloxysilicate) and c Belsil SPR 45VP (INCI: Polyphenylsilsesquioxane) are products of Wacker, www.wacker.com.
d The described isopentyldiol is a product of Kuraray, www.kuraray.us.com.
e The described Abyssinian oil is a product of Elementis, www.elementis.com.

Biography: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories

Luigi Rigano, PhD, is a consultant for the cosmetics industry, co-director of the Institute of Skin and Product Evaluation (ISPE), and head of Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories, a laboratory he founded in 1986. He spent more than 15 years in R&D, production and technical positions at Unilever, Intercos, Givaudan and Schering-Plough Corp., and is an active member of the International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) and of the register of chemists in the Lombardia region of Italy. Rigano serves as a consultant at the Milan Court and has authored more than 80 scientific articles on cosmetics, aesthetics and dermatology.

Formula 1. Example pigment plus stain formulation

Example pigment plus stain formulation

Formula 1 provides an explanatory, traditional example of a combined approach utilizing pigments and staining colorants.

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