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Comparatively Speaking: Shampoo vs. Body Wash Formulation
By: Anthony J. O'Lenick Jr. and Fenbao (David) Zhang, PhD, Siltech
Posted: October 9, 2012
page 2 of 3
Shampoo and body wash are formulated differently. Shampoos are made for specific hair conditions such as dryness, oiliness, damage from color treatment, frizziness, etc. Each function uses different ingredients designed for hair and not skin. The purpose of a shampoo is to clean the hair, but it must not overly clean the hair or all of the protective oils in the hair would be stripped. Shampoos must also smell decent, look good, feel thick or creamy on the hand and produce a rich lather. Other selling points might be trendy herbal extracts or nutritional additives like amino acids from silk or milk, vitamins, etc.1
Shampoos have a pH of between 4 and 6. Acidic shampoos are the most common type of shampoos; they do not contain soap and their pH is closer to the natural pH of hair. Due to their pH, acidic shampoos do not swell the hair shaft or strip the natural oils. The scales on a hair follicle lay flat at a slightly acidic pH, making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. Citric acid is often used to adjust the pH down to 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid, which makes the adjustment easier. It also has a small amount of preservative action.
Even though most modern shampoos include a conditioning component, shampooing is frequently followed by the use of conditioners which ease combing and styling.1 Conditioners are often used after shampooing to smooth down the cuticle layer of the hair, which can become roughened during the physical process of shampooing. Consumers expressed a need for cleaning and conditioning in one step; therefore, 2-in-1 shampoos were created with conditioning materials to offset the harsh effect of the surfactants on the hair. Conditioning the hair can mitigate hair damage by improving sheen, decreasing brittleness, decreasing porosity and increasing strength.2
There are some specialized shampoos such as anti-dandruff, natural, baby and animal shampoo. Anti-dandruff shampoo contains fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide, which reduce loose dander by killing malassezia furfur.1
Exploring the Frontiers of Research in Shampoo and Conditioner Science
Practical Modern Hair Science covers the pertinent issues related to surfactants and provides a detailed description of tests to substantiate claims. A sample of other areas covered in this book: Measuring color, color formulation, the effects of aging on hair, medical conditions affecting hair, and advances in hair styling written by an impressive list of hair science experts.Order today at Alluredbooks-Hair Science!