Deciphering Baby Cream Formulas

Jul 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories
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Title: Deciphering Baby Cream Formulas
baby carex baby creamsx diaper rashx soothingx zinc derivativesx emulsionsx
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Keywords: baby care | baby creams | diaper rash | soothing | zinc derivatives | emulsions

Abstract: Formulators of personal care products for children are faced with the difficult task of creating products with maximum care and minimum risk, all while trying to be innovative. Infant skin is different from adult skin in many ways. First of all, it is characterized by a immature stratum corneum with a higher moisture content and looser structure, compared with adult skin.

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L Rigano, Deciphering Baby Cream Formulas, Cosm & Toil 128(7) 454 (2013)

Market Data

  • The Indian baby care market is expected to increase by nearly 17% between 2011-2015.
  • Driving factors include increasing spending power and awareness about baby health and nourishment.
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Formulators of personal care products for children are faced with the difficult task of creating products with maximum care and minimum risk, all while trying to be innovative. Although young infants 0–12 months are sometimes treated with emollient oils and zinc oxide emulsions, many regions of the world do not apply skin care to children this young. The needs of a child’s skin evolve and change with age; therefore, one should ideally differentiate skin care for children into three groups: infants and toddlers (1–3 years); elementary-aged children (4–10 years) and pre-teenagers (10–12+ years).1 In the youngest skin care segment, an emollient effect is the primary goal, while the goal of the second segment is to protect from dryness caused by water sports and UV exposure. In the oldest group, seborrhea and acne treatment are necessary. This column will address the requirements of the first group, with particular attention to skin care emulsions.

Infant skin is different from adult skin in many ways. First of all, it is characterized by a immature stratum corneum with a higher moisture content and looser structure, compared with adult skin. Skin in infants is also about 20–30% thinner than in adults,2 and it produces less sebum and sweat.3 In other words, it is less protected from the penetration of substances, and its pH buffering capability does not respond quickly.4

Baby skin shows extreme reactivity to a wide range of topically applied substances. Frequently it is affected by diaper rash dermatitis due to prolonged contact with urine and feces in occlusive conditions. Finally, it has a number of hair follicles per square centimeter, abundantly higher than in adult skin, which increases risk of deeper penetration of substances. Even though the amount of skin surface lipids is significantly lower in infants than in healthy adults, almost all evaluation methods show that the barrier function adequately protects the infant, even if the barrier function is lower than in adults. Any induction of toxic effects into the body via the skin is mainly due to the greater skin surface/body ratio.5

The key requirements for baby skin care creams include: a pH value to match the acid mantle (4.2–5.6); the ability to decrease water evaporation and the skin’s tendency to dry out; quick moisturizing and protective effects; benefits such as preventing and reducing inflammation; microbial purity and ability to counteract microbial growth; sensory reward, i.e., freshness, during and after application; maximum purity from all toxic, irritant and allergenic substances; no transdermal delivery enhancers; and chemical and microbial stability.

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This is an excerpt of an article from GCI Magazine. The full version can be found here.

 

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Biography: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories

Luigi Rigano, PhD, is a consultant for the cosmetics industry, co-director of the Institute of Skin and Product Evaluation (ISPE), and head of Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories, a laboratory he founded in 1986. He spent more than 15 years in R&D, production and technical positions at Unilever, Intercos, Givaudan and Schering-Plough Corp., and is an active member of the International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) and of the register of chemists in the Lombardia region of Italy. Rigano serves as a consultant at the Milan Court and has authored more than 80 scientific articles on cosmetics, aesthetics and dermatology.

Footnotes (CT1307 Rigano)

a Sensoform SS (INCI: Methyl Glucose Sesquistearate) and SSE-20 (INCI: PEG-20 Methyl Glucose Squistearate) are manufactured by Croda, www.croda.com.
b SyriCalm (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Phragmites Kharka Extract (and) Poria Cocos Extract) is manufactured by CLR, www.clr-berlin.de.
c Granlux AOX (INCI: Picea Abies Extract) is a product manufactured by Granula, www.granula.com.

Formula 1. Baby balm7

Formula 1. Baby balm

Formula 1 is an o/w baby balm7 that uses a polymeric emulsifier, which is compatible with the pre-dispersion of zinc oxide, with the stabilizing support of a less hydrophilic emulsifier, trideceth 10, and the bulky lipophilic emulsifier polyglycerol-3 polyricinoleate.

Formula 2. Baby cream8

Formula 2. Baby cream

Formula 2 is a w/o fluid emulsion8 with a high amount of zinc oxide, which shows how the product rheology is dependent on the emulsifier properties.

Formula 3. Cleansing milk for baby’s skin

Formula 3. Cleansing milk for baby’s skin

High skin compatibility is achieved in Formula 3 by replacing traditional emulsifiers with synthetic emulsifying polymers, vegetal sterols and phospholipids.

Formula 4. Baby body lotion10

Formula 4.  Baby body lotion

Formula 410 is a good example of simple and modern o/w emollient emulsion, with reduced amount of lipids and a preferential choice for natural derived ingredients.

Formula 5. Nappy rash soothing cream11

Formula 5. Nappy rash soothing cream

The processing method for Formula 5 is traditional for o/w emulsions.

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