Evaluating the Stability of Flavor and Fragrance Materials in Deodorant Sticks

Mar 1, 2007 | Contact Author | By: Chintaman T. Bondar, Sushilkumar A. Dubal, Adinath M. Ware, Jyotsna T. Waghmare and S.A.Momin, Institute of Chemical Technology
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Title: Evaluating the Stability of Flavor and Fragrance Materials in Deodorant Sticks
deodorant stickx hedonic scale ratingx substantivity scale ratingx intensityx
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Keywords: deodorant stick | hedonic scale rating | substantivity scale rating | intensity

Abstract: In antiperspirants and deodorants, active ingredients or product formulations can alter the perfume oils or individual odorants in the aqueous alcoholic solutions. Thus, it is important to conduct stability tests before large-scale manufacture and distribution. In the described study, researchers evaluated the stability of various flavor and fragrance materials in deodorant sticks containing active ingredients.

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Henry David Thoreau wrote, “If the day and night are such that you greet them with joy and life emits a fragrance like flowers and sweet-scented herbs—that is your success. All nature is your congratulation.” Generations ago, Thoreau had written these thoughts about the importance of floral fragrances and sweet-scented herbs. This concept maintains its importance in today’s dot-com world. In fact, it has become more meaningful as human beings become more dependent on machines and lose touch with their appreciation of nature. Consequently, cosmetics incorporating fragrances act as a boon for mankind. In one respect, fragrance is highly important in the development of products, from chewing gum and cosmetic applications to preventive care.

On the other hand, fragrance also could be considered a nonfunctional ingredient that is more expensive per pound than other ingredients, as well as being replaceable without affecting the performance of the product. It therefore could be considered efficient manufacturing to cut fragrance costs to the minimum as long as the formula is compatible with reasonable consumer acceptance.

Needless to say, the two viewpoints—fragrance as an ornament versus fragrance as a communication channel—often lead to different fragrance selections.

Today, antiperspirants and deodorants represent one of the largest personal care product categories. More than 90% of the US population currently uses such products daily, and a similar trend will follow in other regions. In antiperspirants and deodorants, active ingredients or product formulations can alter the perfume oils or individual odorants in the aqueous alcoholic solutions. For this reason, it is important to conduct comprehensive stability tests with products before their large-scale manufacture and distribution.

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Table 1. Stability of esters

Table 1. Stability of esters  

Table 2. Stability of alcohol

Table 2. Stability of alcohol 

Table 3. Stability of aldehydes

Table 3. Stability of aldehydes  

Table 4. Stability of ketones

Table 4. Stability of ketones 

Table 5. Stability of lactones

Table 5. Stability of lactones  

Table 6. Stability

Table 6. Stability 

Figure 1. Hedonic scale ratings

Figure 1. Hedonic scale ratings 

Figure 2. Hedonic scale ratings

Figure 2. Hedonic scale ratings 

Figure 3. Hedonic scale ratings

Figure 3. Hedonic scale ratings 

Figure 4. Hedonic scale ratings

 Figure 4. Hedonic scale ratings 

Figure 5. Intensity scale ratings

Figure 5. Intensity scale ratings 

Figure 6. Intensity scale ratings

Figure 6. Intensity scale ratings 

Figure 7. Intensity scale

Figure 7. Intensity scale 

Figure 8. Intensity scale

Figure 8. Intensity scale

Figure 9. Substantivity of esters

Figure 9. Substantivity of esters 

Figure 10. Substantivity

Figure 10. Substantivity 

Figure 11. Substantivity

Figure 11. Substantivity  

Figure 12. Substantivity

Figure 12. Substantivity 

Dubal: Evaluating the Stability of Flavors Footnotes

a Agilent Gas Chromatograph Model 4890D is a device from Agilent Technologies. 

Formula 1. Test deodorant stick formulation

Formula 1. Test deodorant stick formulation 

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