Deciphering Antiperspirant Formulas

Nov 1, 2011 | Contact Author | By: Eric S. Abrutyn, TPC2 Advisors Ltd.
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Title: Deciphering Antiperspirant Formulas
deodorantsx antiperspirantsx aluminum chemistryx
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Keywords: deodorants | antiperspirants | aluminum chemistry

Abstract: The formulation matrix delivery system is the key to effectiveness and acceptable consumer antiperspirant systems. The most common delivery systems are roll-ons (either aqueous or cyclosiloxane suspensions), aerosol (hydrocarbon propellant suspensions), extrudable clear gels (water-in-cyclosiloxane emulsions), extrudable opaque soft solids (anhydrous cyclosiloxane suspension pastes) or solid sticks (anhydrous cyclomethicone suspension solids).

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E Abrutyn, Deciphering Antiperspirant Formulas, Cosm & Toil 126(11) 780 (2011)

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Antiperspirants have been widely used since the mid 1960s. In 1978, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a draft monograph (finalized in 1993) on the category, listing these products as drugs—defined as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug when applied topically to reduce production of underarm sweat (perspiration).1 Antiperspirants and deodorants are considered drugs because they can affect the function of the body by reducing the amount of sweat that reaches the skin surface. In the United States, OTC drugs are subjected to monograph rules, which define standards and requirements, pre-market approval process, acceptable actives and allowable formulation percentages of actives. Other countries’ regulations vary in content and scope. Even though most countries have not adopted equal FDA regulatory restrictions, they have adopted some type of general regulatory guidelines that define acceptable safe antiperspirant actives and how to substantiate claims. Even though non-US antiperspirant products are not confined to strict rules, because the FDA monograph has become a template of acceptable antiperspirants, there has been limited innovation in the category globally.

The consumer typically confuses the function of antiperspirants and deodorants, mostly due to a misunderstanding of marketing claims and product positioning. For the most part, antiperspirants are built upon aluminum-based cationic salt chloride complexes, as well as complexes with zirconium acid salts, and are referred to as “actives” on the label. There are numerous types of antiperspirant actives listed in the FDA monograph as well as in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).2 Antiperspirant actives are responsible for blocking sweat expulsion through the formation of temporary plugs within the sweat duct, thus stopping or slowing down the flow of sweat to the surface of the eccrine gland. The mechanism of sweat reduction is not based on a physiological change to the body. The mechanism is typically described as an occlusive protein-precipitation plug with the acidic nature of the antiperspirant to produce an aluminum or zirconium hydroxide plug. This plug is superficial and readily reversible after 7–28 days without use. The formulation matrix delivery system is the key to effectiveness and acceptable consumer antiperspirant systems. The most common delivery systems are roll-ons (either aqueous or cyclosiloxane suspensions), aerosol (hydrocarbon propellant suspensions), extrudable clear gels (water-in-cyclosiloxane emulsions), extrudable opaque soft solids (anhydrous cyclosiloxane suspension pastes) or solid sticks (anhydrous cyclomethicone suspension solids), as shown in Figure 1.

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Table 1. Degree MotionSENSE Antiperspirant Deodorant Invisible Solid

Table 1. Degree MotionSENSE Antiperspirant Deodorant Invisible Solid

This antiperspirant, shown in Figure 5, is targeted to women and utilizes a micro-encapsulated fragrance technology to release freshness when the consumer is active.

Table 2. Secret Clinical Strength Waterproof Antiperspirant Deodorant

Table 2. Secret Clinical Strength Waterproof Antiperspirant Deodorant

This product, shown in Figure 6, is said to provide waterproof wetness protection that outlasts heat, humidity and water.

Table 3. Arrid Ultima Clinical Protection Clean Mist Antiperspirant Deodorant Spray

Table 3. Arrid Ultima Clinical Protection Clean Mist Antiperspirant Deodorant Spray

This spray (Figure 7) features a non-irritating clinical protection formula with the skin conditioners isopropyl myristate and cyclopentasiloxane that is claimed to go on clear without white residue and to protect against odor and wetness.

Table 4. Right Guard Sport 3-D Odor Defense Cool Clear Gel Antiperspirant & Deodorant

Table 4. Right Guard Sport 3-D Odor Defense Cool Clear Gel Antiperspirant & Deodorant

This antiperspirant, pictured in Figure 8, has been released with a new formula that is said to block 100% more odors.

Table 5. Dry Idea Advanced Dry Unscented 24hr Antiperspirant & Deodorant Roll-On

Table 5. Dry Idea Advanced Dry Unscented 24hr Antiperspirant & Deodorant Roll-On

This roll-on (Figure 9) features a new formula with hypoallergenic protection and fast-drying MicroCotton, which possibly is comprised of cotton seed oil and corn starch.

Table 6. Nivea Invisible Black & White Clear Antiperspirant Roll-On

Table 6. Nivea Invisible Black & White Clear Antiperspirant Roll-On

This roll-on, shown in Figure 10, is said to offer gentle care and 24-hour protection against odor and wetness.

Figure 1. Antiperspirant product forms

Figure 1. Antiperspirant product forms

The most common delivery systems are roll-ons (either aqueous or cyclosiloxane suspensions), aerosol (hydrocarbon propellant suspensions), extrudable clear gels (water-in-cyclosiloxane emulsions), extrudable opaque soft solids (anhydrous cyclosiloxane suspension pastes) or solid sticks (anhydrous cyclomethicone suspension solids), as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 2. Atomic ratio of aluminum to chloride in ACH

Figure 2. Atomic ratio of aluminum to chloride in ACH

Within the monograph boundaries, the atomic ratio of aluminum to chloride can range from 2:1 to 1:1 within three different segmentations (aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate and aluminum dichlorohydrate, as pictured in Figure 2.

Figure 3. Atomic ratio of aluminum to zirconium in AZG

Figure 3. Atomic ratio of aluminum to zirconium in AZG

As shown in Figure 3, these AZG complexes can be buffered with glycine (an amino acid) to stabilize the complex and mitigate the acidic harshness which could result when applied to underarm axilla.

Figure 4. Functional benefits of siloxanes

Figure 4. Functional benefits of siloxanes

There are other important siloxanes that serve varying functional benefits as noted in Figure 4.

Figure 5. Degree MotionSENSE Antiperspirant Deodorant Invisible Solid

Figure 5. Degree MotionSENSE Antiperspirant Deodorant Invisible Solid

This antiperspirant, shown in Figure 5, is targeted to women and utilizes a micro-encapsulated fragrance technology to release freshness when the consumer is active.

Figure 6. Secret Clinical Strength Waterproof Antiperspirant Deodorant

Figure 6. Secret Clinical Strength Waterproof Antiperspirant Deodorant

This product, shown in Figure 6, is said to provide waterproof wetness protection that outlasts heat, humidity and water.

Figure 7. Arrid Ultima Clinical Protection Clean Mist Antiperspirant Deodorant Spray

Figure 7. Arrid Ultima Clinical Protection Clean Mist Antiperspirant Deodorant Spray

This spray (Figure 7) features a non-irritating clinical protection formula with the skin conditioners isopropyl myristate and cyclopentasiloxane that is claimed to go on clear without white residue and to protect against odor and wetness.

Figure 8. Right Guard Sport 3-D Odor Defense Cool Clear Gel Antiperspirant & Deodorant

Figure 8. Right Guard Sport 3-D Odor Defense Cool Clear Gel Antiperspirant & Deodorant

This antiperspirant, pictured in Figure 8, has been released with a new formula that is said to block 100% more odors.

Figure 9. Dry Idea Advanced Dry Unscented 24hr Antiperspirant & Deodorant Roll-On

Figure 9. Dry Idea Advanced Dry Unscented 24hr Antiperspirant & Deodorant Roll-On

This roll-on (Figure 9) features a new formula with hypoallergenic protection and fast-drying MicroCotton, which possibly is comprised of cotton seed oil and corn starch.

Figure 10. Nivea Invisible Black & White Clear Antiperspirant Roll-On

Figure 10. Nivea Invisible Black & White Clear Antiperspirant Roll-On

This roll-on, shown in Figure 10, is said to offer gentle care and 24-hour protection against odor and wetness.

Biography: Eric S. Abrutyn, TPC2 Advisors Ltd., Inc.

Eric S. Abrutyn, TPC2 Advisors Ltd., Inc.

Eric S. Abrutyn is an active member of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, a Cosmetics & Toiletries scientific advisory board member, and chairman of the Personal Care Products Council’s International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI) Committee. Recently retired from Kao Brands, Abrutyn founded TPC2 Advisors Ltd., Inc., a personal care consultancy. He has more than 35 years of experience in the raw material supplier and skin and hair care manufacturer aspects of personal care.

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