Figure 3. The effects of phytosphingosine (PS) on the release of IL-1a after treatment with sodium lauryl sulphate.

Similarly, phytosphingosine was found to inhibit the inflammatory effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) by approximately 40–50%, compared with the untreated control, when examined using lactate dehydrogenase and interleukin-1α levels, indicating the anti-inflammatory effect of phytosphingosine (see Figure 3).