Figure 4. Four possible propagation reactions for the free-radical copolymerization of monomers M1 and M2

PQ-7 for personal care applications is usually produced via the aqueous solution copolymerization of AM and DADMAC in a semi-batch process like that shown in Figure 4, where AM monomer and initiator are fed continuously into a reactor initially charged with water, DADMAC, a portion of AM, a portion of initiator, and other additives—e.g., chelating agents, pH adjusters, etc.